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вторник, 10 марта 2015 г.

Повышаем свой уровень знаний словарь по теме Hedge Fund Glossary (Часть 2) From G to L

 
General partner

The individual or firm that organizes and manages a limited partnership, such as a hedge fund. The general partner assumes unlimited legal responsibility for the liabilities of a partnership.

Global-macro investment strategy

An approach in which a fund manager seeks to anticipate broad trends in the worldwide economy. Based on those forecasts, the manager chooses investments from a wide variety of markets -- i.e. stocks, bonds, currencies & commodities. The approach typically involves a medium-term holding period and produces high volatility. Many of the largest hedge funds follow global-macro strategies. They are sometimes called "macro" or "global directional-investment" funds.

Hedge fund

A private investment vehicle whose manager receives a significant portion of its compensation from incentive fees tied to the fund's performance -- typically 20% of annual gains over a certain hurdle rate, along with a management fee equal to 1% of assets. The funds, often organized as limited partnerships, typically invest on behalf of high-net-worth individuals and institutions. Their primary objective is often to preserve investors'capital by taking positions whose returns are not closely correlated to those of the broader financial markets. Such vehicles may employ leverage, short sales, a variety of derivatives and other hedging techniques to reduce risk and increase returns. The classic hedge-fund concept, a long/short investment strategy sometimes referred to as the Jones Model, was developed by Alfred Winslow Jones in 1949.

High-water mark

A provision serving to ensure that a fund manager only collects incentive fees on the highest net asset value previously attained at the end of any prior fiscal year -- or gains representing actual profits for each investor. For example, if the value of an investor's contribution falls to, say, $750,000 from $1 million during the first year, and then rises to $1.25 million during the second year, the manager would only collect incentive fees from that investor on the $250,000 that represented actual profits in year-two.

Hurdle rate

The minimum return necessary for a fund manager to start collecting incentive fees. The hurdle is usually tied to a benchmark rate such as Libor or the one-year Treasury bill rate plus a spread. If, for example, the manager sets a hurdle rate equal to 5%, and the fund returns 15%, incentive fees would only apply to the 10% above the hurdle rate. 

Incentive fee (performance fee)

The charge -- typically 20% -- that a fund manager assesses on gains earned during a given 12-month period. For example, if a fund posts a return that is 40% above its hurdle rate, the incentive fee would be 8% (20% of 40%) -- provided that the high-water mark does not come into play.

Inception date

The day on which a fund starts trading.

Jensen's Alpha

A risk-adjusted performance measure that represents the average return on a portfolio over and above that predicted by the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), given the portfolio's beta and the average market return. This is the portfolio's alpha. In fact, the concept is sometimes referred to as "Jensen's alpha."

Kurtosis

In probability theory and statistics, kurtosis (from the Greek word kurtos, meaning bulging) is a measure of the "peakedness" of the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable. Higher kurtosis means more of the variance is due to infrequent extreme deviations, as opposed to frequent modestly-sized deviations.
In probability theory and statistics, kurtosis (from the Greek word kurtos, meaning bulging) is a measure of the "peakedness" of the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable. Higher kurtosis means more of the variance is due to infrequent extreme deviations, as opposed to frequent modestly-sized deviations.



Lamp letter

A May 6, 1997, "no-action letter" from the SEC to Lamp Technologies of Dallas indicating that an online hedge-fund database would not violate restrictions against marketing hedge funds. The landmark letter cleared the way for others to launch hedge-fund performance databases on the Internet, and expressed the SEC's opinion that such databases did not represent the type of general hedge-fund advertising that was prohibited under rule 502(c) of Regulation D under the Securities Act of 1933

Leverage

The borrowed money that an investor employs to increase buying power and increase its exposure to an investment. Users of leverage seek to increase their overall invested amounts in hopes that the returns on their positions will exceed their borrowing costs. The extent of a fund's leverage is stated either as a debt-to-equity ratio or as a percentage of the fund's total assets that are funded by debt. Example: If a fund has $1 million of equity capital and it borrows another $2 million to bring its total assets to $3 million, its leverage can be stated as "two times equity" or as 67% ($2 million divided by $3 million). Ratios of between two and five to one are common. Leverage can also come in the form of short sales, which involve borrowed securities

Limited partnership

Many hedge funds are structured as limited partnerships, which are business organizations managed by one or more general partners who are liable for the fund's debts and obligations. The investors in such a structure are limited partners who do not participate in day-to-day operations and are liable only to the extent of their investments.

Lock-up

The period of time -- often one year -- during which hedge-fund investors are initially prohibited from redeeming their shares.

Long-biased investment strategy

An approach taken by fund managers who tend to hold considerably more long positions than short positions.

Long/short investment strategy

An approach in which fund managers buy stocks whose prices they expect will increase and takes short positions in securities (usually in the same sector) whose prices they believes will decline. The strategy, also known as the Jones Model, is designed to generate profits during bullish periods in the overall stock market, while serving as a source of capital protection in a falling stock market.